The Porta Romana

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The Porta Romana was the entrance to the western city of Aquinum. It is a monumental gate with a single arch, a square, made of large blocks of travertine. Can be seen today, next to the Via Latina, the base part of the elevation of the jambs and the attack of the walls, as well as several blocks belonging to the same door and the walls, preserved to the sides and above the structures.

The door is an integral part of the defensive circuit of the Roman colony. The walls are now only partially preserved in its path, but it is easy to read in all its historical path from aerial photos and is passed down from literary sources.

The Porta San Lorenzo

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The Porta San Lorenzo (from close to a medieval church dedicated to the saint and remembered in medieval sources at the beginning of the fourteenth century.) Is located on the Via Latina in the eastern sector of the urban area of Aquinum. It is a door to a rectangular shaft preserved almost entirely built of square blocks of local travertine. The base is decorated on the facades, and for a short distance along the short sides, from a socket molded with profile groove descending. The entrance arches, east and west, are all in the sixth with a single ring segments and an aperture of 3.60 m. On the western side, on the sides of the arch, there are two rectangular receipts, for the housing of decorative elements.

The Arch

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In the eastern suburb of Aquinum is the honorary arch so-called ” di Marcantonio”. The attribution of this, very suggestive, draws its origins by Cicero (Cic. Philipp., II, 41, 105-106). The monument is one of the oldest examples of honorary arch known in Italy. Built in blocks of local travertine, the Arch missing of the entire top. The lower part of the monument is not visible, because is  submerged by a water course.

The elegant shape of the arc “Marcantonio” have always aroused interest: in the  Renaissance is designed and integrated with hypothetical reconstructions, by Antonio and Giuliano da Sangallo, Sallustio Peruzzi, Giovannantonio Dosio.
The construction of the monument is dated to around the years 41-40 BC

The Via Latina

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The Via Latina is one of the oldest roads in Italy. Already existing in protohistoric and archaic ages, the path that characterizes the Liri valley was settled around the IV-III century. BC, during the Roman colonization of southern Lazio. Leaving Rome at Porta Capena together with the Queen of Roads (the Appian Way), the Via Latina came in Capua through several major centers. Aquinum was one of these.

In the urban structure of Aquinum the Via Latina plays a key role, being the decumanus maximus of the city, along which were the main monuments.

 

The Amphitheater

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The amphitheater is located in the south-western sector of the city. Of the monument are visible only few remains  because was partially destroyed during the construction of the A1 highway between 1960 and 1961.
In the summer of 2010 he was made ​​a first archaeological excavation.
A farmhouse rested on four radial septa of the monument. In the cellars of the building and outside on the walls you can see the remains of walls in opus reticulatum.
The amphitheater Aquinum was probably very similar to that of Casinum, even if larger than this.

The Apsidal Building

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The building is located close to the theater, in the central sector of the Roman city. It is a structure built of large blocks of local travertine squared. In the past, on the basis of Juvenal to the ruins had been given the name of “Temple of Diana”. In the writings of some nineteenth-century travelers, the building is mentioned by the name “S. Mary Magdalene “that would suggest his conversion, however, fairly common practice in late antiquity, in place of Christian worship.

Do not know the chronology of the monument, variously dated in the second century. B.C. in the Augustan age, or more generally in the second half of the sec.aC
Equally unknown is its function, attributable perhaps to a basilica.

 

The Temple

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The major temple of Aquinum, better known as the “so-called Capitolium” was one of the largest buildings in the city. The remains are located in the northwest of the colony, in a peripheral area. The temple was built on a pre-existing cult certainly the oldest, pre-Roman times.
According to the most recent studies, the ” so-called Capitolium” was a temple with six columns on the front, with two architectonical orders of architecture, Doric and Corinthian. The monument is dated between the end of II century B.C., and the early decades of I  centuryB.C.
The temple was probably dedicated to a female deity (perhaps Juno Regina Populonia), linked to healing sphere.

 

The Tower

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The monument is located in the extreme western sector of the urban area, on the line of the walls, a few meters to the north of the route of the Latina and the remains of the Porta Romana.

It was one of the towers that formed part of the defense system of the city. The monument is built of large blocks of travertine. The building technique is polygonal work. The plan of the structure is almost square, and measures 6.40 x 6.80 m., with a high stored for a maximum of 2.80 m.
The set of building characteristics and historical considerations establish the dating between the late IV-III centuries. B.C.

The Theater

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The theater is on the Via Latina, decumanus maximus of the ancient colony. There are visible the walls that supported the media cavea, and part of the scaena. Of the building remain 22 radial septa. The walls are cementitious, and facing walls are characterized by an opus reticolatum with cubilia in local travertine.

The first archaeological excavation was carried out by the Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici del Lazio.
These assays have identified 3 steps still in situ. On the basis of the excavations we can hypothesize the existence of two orders of steps: the upper sostruito, the lower excavated. There are different proposals for dating the building. A first dating places the theater in the early years of the I century. A.D. . Differently, others have dated the building to a previous period, dating it to the middle of the I century. B.C.