Brief History

The ancient city of Aquinum stood in the middle valley of the Liri (the ancient valley Latin) at the foot of the mountain range dominated by Mount Cairo (d. 1669) in a large flat area bordered to the east by three ancient lakes drained and reclaimed today (Valley of Aquinas), a flowing stream, a left tributary of the Liri, called Forms Aquinas.
Aquinum makes his first appearance in historical sources during the Second Punic War, when Livio points out that in 211 BC Hannibal’s army passed around, and then continue his march towards Fregellae.
For the next period we have no evidence up to the first century BC, especially in relation to events related to the important figure of Cicero, who was born in the nearby area Arpinum, frequent and deep knowledge of the places and customs Aquinati. At the time of Cicero, the city had to be a municipium, while in triumviral age, it was a colony.
At this time, between the end of the Republican and early Imperial period, which Aquinum reached its peak, so to be called the “big city” by the geographer Strabo. At this very moment our Central Baths were built, almost certainly the remains of an existing building.
Originally from Aquinum, was probably the poet Juvenal, who in the verses of his satire speaks in opposition to Rome, as the example of a city on a human scale.
No event is noteworthy to remember in the early centuries of the empire, while in late antiquity outlines an important Christian community; around the middle and at the beginning of the sixth century AD, in fact, appear the first names of bishops Aquinati.
Finally, the moment of transition between the city of late antiquity and the medieval Aquinas is to be placed around the years 587-589 AD, with the arrival of the Lombards who occupy stably and permanently transformed the Roman city.


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